Ghazipur was covered with dense forest in Vedic era and it was a place for Ashrams of Saints during that period. This place is related to the Ramayana period where Maharshi Yamdgni, the Father of Mahrshi Parsuram resided over here.The Famous Rishis Gautam & Chyavan were given teaching and sermon here in ancient period. The Lord Buddha who gave the first sermon in Sarnath,Varanasi which is not very far from here. The Aurihar area of Ghazipur district became the main center for teaching of Lord Buddha. Many stoopas and pillars are the main evidence of that period. Chinese Traveller Hiuen Tsang had visited this area and described this place as Chanchu “The Land of Battle Fields”.
This Place was the main center in medieval period from Sultanate period to Mughals. In Tughalk period, Zuna Khan, alias Muhammad Tuglak established the Jaunpur as the capital under which the Ghazipur was ruled . In the regime of Zuna Khan, the Saiyyad Massod Ghazi established this town , by defeating he Raja Mandhata, the ancestor of brave King Prithvi Raj Chauhan. In Lodhi Period, the Naseer Khan Nuhani was the Administrator of Ghazipur who changed its conditions. This Area was the main center during Mughal period when Babar took over the charge of Ghazipur and Muhammad Khan Nuhani became its administrator. In the reign of Akbar, the Afghan Ali Kuli Khan took over the charge of Ghazipur and developed the town Zamania. After the Death of Aurangjeb this area was taken by Jamindar Mansa Ram . Thereafter, Ghazipur came under the suzerainty of the Banaras state and Raja Balwant Singh, the Son of Mansa Ram became the King of Ghazipur.After the attack of Warren Hastings, the then Governor General of the British rule, this area was ruled over by various British rulers. The Lord Cornwallis, who was very famous for reforms in land came to visit this place and accidentally died. In his memory a beautiful tomb which attracts the tourist is also present in Ghazipur City.
This Area is Fertile with Great Freedom fighters. The Hero of Ist Freedom movement ( which is popularly referred to as Sepoy Movement ) Mangal Pandey comes from this soil only. The Famous Nilha Sahib Revolt is Associated with this place where the Farmers revolted against the British & they set on fire various Indigo Godowns. The Ghazipur Plays and has played a major role in India’s Freedom Struggle.
In the history of Indian National movement the significant role was played by the people of Ghazipur. In home rule, Rolat Act , Khalafat Movment , Namak Kanoon, Videshi Bastro Ka Bahiskar Satyagrah & movement of 1942 the people of Ghazipur took part couragously & fearlessly to our pride. People namely Dr. Mukhtar Ahmad Ansari, Sahjanand Sarwasti, Dr. Sayad Mahmood Qazi, Nijamul Haq Anasri, Bhagawat Mishra, Gajanan Marwari, Vishwanath Sharma, Hari Prasad Singh, Vaseer, Ram Murat Singh , Ram Raj Singh, Bola Singh, Indradev Tripathi, Dev Karan Singh, Vishwnath Ji, Sideshawar Prasad Singh, Ram Sawaroop Pandey, Saraju Pandey, Dalsingar Dube, Ram Bahadur Shastri & other many others recorded their prideful roles. People of this district played indeliable roles in QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT. Under the leadership of Dr. Shiv Pujan Rai a group of freedom fighters hoisted the tri-colour flag at Muhammadabad tehsil. Dr. Shiv Pujan Rai, Vans Narain Rai, Ram Badan Rai , Raj Narain Rai & Vasishth Narain Rai sacrified their lives for country on 18 Aug’1942.
After Independence, Ghazipur could not develop as it used to be in the past. But this soil gave brave soldiers like Brig. Usman, Paramveer Chakra awarddee Veer Abdul Hameed, Ram Urgrah Pandey. In recent times Ghazipur showed its notable bravery in Kargil victory against Pakistan in 1999.
The word Ghazipur does not figure as such in ancient Indian History, but according to some historians Raja Ghadhi father of Maharsi Jamdagni was from this place. During that period this place was covered with dense forests and in it many Ashrams were situated viz. Yamdagni (father of Parasuram) Ashram, Parsuram Ashram, Madan Van etc. The Maharshi Gautam’s Ashram was near Ghazipur town some 16 Kms. east around the village Gauspur. Sarnath, where Lord Buddha got Bodhisatva or enlightenment in 6th century B.C is about 65 km. west from this district headquarter & falls in Varanasi district. Thus it became a center of Budha’s preachings during his time.This town was an important centre during Buddhist period. The Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang mentions this locality as “Chanchu” meaning the soil of battlefields which is signified by many important battles fought here.
Ghazipur district is famous for it glorious history in Mughal period. Historians mentioned about its nomenclature through which Ghazipur is named after Saiyyad Masood Ghazi. Istekbal says, that Saiyyad Massod Ghazi,known for Hindu- Muslim Unity, established this city in 1330 A.D. Some historian are of the view that this is established by Ustad Ghazi Mashook.About the naming of various townships of Ghazipur records are as – Zamania Tehsil of district Ghazipur in named after Saiyyad Ali Kuli Khan,Kasimabad is established by Sheikh Abdullah after name of his father Abdul Kasim. This district was a major city during Sultanate period and mughal period. This was a main halt for emperors and their army as it is situated on the bank of holy river Ganges. The Pahar Khan ka Pokhra, The Mosque of Nawali by Nawab Sufi and Allalabad and Kasimabad forts were established by Sheikh Abdullah give a glimpes of its past history. In Sutanate period Kutubuddin Ebak conquered Banaras ( now Varanasi ) and Jaunpur in 1194 AD. Thereafter Mughal emperor Babar and Humayun took over this area. A historical event of Humayun relates with this place (located in Sherpur Village in Muhammdabad ) in which a Bhisti made Humayun to cross the river gangaes after his being defeated in the battle of Chausa by Shreshah Suri. In 1552 AD this place was under Taz Khan Kirani and Akbar won this place after defeating the Adil Shah in battle of Panipat in 1556 AD. Alikuli khan winning Banaras and Jaunpur established the Zamania town.In 1764 AD Britishers won Buxar and Ghazipur which was therafter ruled by East India Company . Company posted Mr. Richardson as a judge and Mr. Robert Warlo was made the first Collector for this district. The Britishers used this place for cultivation of indigo, opium, kewra and roses. They established Opium Factory which is of its kind.It is presently working and providing revenue to govt. of India by producing opium allkaloides. During British rule Opium manufratured in this factory was carried to China on boats through the Bay of Bengal.